The EPR Paradox ...

By my definition, in order for any Reality Model or TOE theory to be successful it has to explain several paradoxes. One of the paradoxes that must be explained is the EPR paradox. I realize that the Theory of Super Relativity is a very controversial theory. I ask that you hang with me and do not give up on the explanation presented here and please read this entire EPR Document all the way to the end. I ask this because this explanation I propose would be useless if there was not a way to test the proposed explanation. I do have a way to test this idea. I have searched for some time now and have not seen this variation of the EPR experiment performed in a lab. I will save the experiment proposal for the end. I think that you will be intrigued by the experiment that I propose.

This paradox was the most challenging of all the mysteries that I have attempted to explain. For the people who do not know of the EPR Paradox I will give a brief history of EPR followed by an explanation of the Paradox.
In the world of Physics, the EPR paradox (which stands for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) is a thought experiment which in time turned into an actual experiment that was designed to prove that Quantum Theory violates classical intuitions and is therefore fundamentally flawed and incomplete.

The EPR paradox draws on a phenomenon predicted by quantum mechanics, known as quantum entanglement, to show that measurements performed on spatially separated parts of a quantum system can apparently have an instantaneous influence on one another. This effect is now known as "nonlocal behavior" (or colloquially as "quantum weirdness").

This is a most disturbing fact. To state it more precisely, if you emit from the same light source twin photons, photon A and photon B and these particles are phase correlated (means twin like) and you let them travel away from each other and separate by a great distance something amazing will happen. If you in some way observe and change some attribute of particle A and then measure particle B you will find that particle B has been affected by the change in Photon A. Particle B has changed instantaneously even though it is separated by a great distance. Some how, the particles are interconnected even though they are physically separated by a great distance. This definitely violates Einsteinian Relativity. Information or effects cannot be transferred faster than the speed of light. How can effect be transferred between any two spatially separated objects at a speed greater than the speed of light?

Although nowadays this little detail does not really seem to bother Quantum Mechanics enthusiasts as they still believe that this does not mean Quantum Mechanics is incomplete in some way. The results of EPR experiments are accurately predicted by Quantum Mechanical computations but how it happens has not been explained.

This on the surface seems to support Quantum Mechanics. Most physicists today regard the EPR Paradox as an illustration of how Quantum Mechanics violates classical intuitions, and not as an indication that Quantum Mechanics is fundamentally flawed in some way.

The fact is that QM provides no physical or mechanical model to explain this phenomenon. This mystery needs to be understood and if quantum mechanics cannot explain it, it means that the theory is not a theory that describes physical reality. QM therefore is I believe foundationally incomplete and most likely nothing more than a mathematical shorthand description of our physical reality. I believe that all quantum mechanics really is, is a tool that can be used to statistically predict sub-atomic particle behavior and events. It, in no way should be used to describe physical reality at the foundational level.

I will now attempt to define and explain precisely what is happening in the EPR experiment. Since changing Particle A instantaneously effects and changes particle B our physical reality must be adhering to the principle of locality. I know what you are thinking right now. We have two very distant objects and they are having an affect on one another therefore, this is nonlocality.

In reality although the particles are separated by a great distance spatially speaking I can prove in some respects the particles are not separated at all. So, therefore the twin photons are, in reality a local system. The philosophical concept of causality is also enforce here and is not violated. Using common sense explanation with the formulas in Relativity it can be proven that the particles are never separated. This solves the instantaneous communication problem.

The Super Relativity EPR Model

The logic for the solution of the EPR phenomenon is simple and straight forward. The same process is used to solve this mystery and it is done in the same way that the other mysteries in this book are explained. The rules for the explanation are as follows:

  1. In order to explain the mysterious phenomenon the proven concepts of relativity can be used.
  2. Lorentzian ether mathematics can be used.
  3. Proven experimental data and observations can be used.
  4. Along with the above stated tools the application of new ideas from Super Relativity are used to construct an explanation for a working mechanical model.

The key issue in the EPR experiment is that of instantaneous or the near instantaneous affect of a Particle A on a distant object Particle B.  This particular phenomenon does not occur anywhere else in nature. It only occurs in phase correlated systems. Therefore the special circumstances that surround this event must be closely scrutinized so that the mystery can be solved.  The assumption is that the special circumstances surrounding EPR systems which in this case is phase entanglement are the root cause of the instantaneous action at a distance.

Logical Construction of the Model using Speculations and Assumptions
  Alternate Speculations

  1. Phase entanglement particles may not be communicating instantaneously. Information transfer may not be simultaneous. This thought is based on the idea that there are limits on the experimental apparatus and these limits prohibit proof of simultaneity.
  2. The range of influence may also be limited. This thought is also based on the idea that there are limits on the experimental apparatus and these limits prohibit proving simultaneity occurs at vast distances.

Primary Speculation

1. There is a faster than light connection which would then imply that a spatial effect or deformation is happening between the two entangled objects that has not heretofore been considered or postulated. More precisely the locality in the entangled system is being extended to an infinite range because the spatial medium in between the two entangled objects is physically connected and certain spatial parameters such as tension increase with distance as the entangled objects separate. The increase in spatial tension can then facilitate the transfer of electromagnetic waves at faster than light speed. In this model it is assumed that space is a continuous physical material substance.

Assumptions:

  1. In my mechanical model whether or not the speed of communication is infinitely fast or the range of effectiveness is infinitely large it is assumed that the EPR phenomenon known as phase entanglement does cause faster than light information transfer at distances that seem to suggest non-locality. Therefore describing the EPR phenomenon should be considered to be absolutely essential to any viable theory of reality. Describing how and why phase entangled particles cause faster than light communication is fundamentally important!
  2. The question of Locality vs. Nonlocality.

The definition of Nonlocality says that it is not possible to treat widely separated systems as independent.

The definition of locality is defined using the principle of locality which states that distant objects cannot have direct influence on one another: an object is influenced directly only by its immediate surroundings. Effects on one another occur because of direct contact with force effects being transferred between objects at the speed of light or less.

Therefore according to the above definitions the theory of Super Relativity asserts that reality is in fact deterministic and local. The assumption being that the superluminal communication between phase entangled distant objects is in reality a local system. The logic for this is as follows: Phase entangled objects communicate via a true solid spatial medium. This medium’s primary method of force propagation is caused by mechanical deformations. These deformations are what Special Relativity calls the primary fields. The primary fields are electrostatic, magnetic and gravitational fields. These fields are mediated and expressed as mechanical distortions of the medium of space in which the deformations of space cause the forces of attraction and repulsion. There is no particle that mediates these fields. Therefore there is always direct contact between all objects in space via the medium irrespective of distance. The fact that communication is superluminal only accentuates the point that action at a distance is occurring. The mechanism for action at a distance is the same as it is for any of the primary force fields. Gravity for instance still reaches across space and affects celestial bodies. Even though the gravitational field propagation speed is limited to the speed of light no one can deny that it is an effect that is real. What is incorrect is the notion that the celestial bodies are separated from each other by some distance of space. What in fact is really true is that celestial objects are connected to each other by some distance of space. According to Super Relativity all things are connected by the spatial medium. Therefore all of reality is local because distant objects are not physically separate from each other.

  1. The physical explanation for superluminal communication is rooted in ether theory and ether concepts.
  2. The modulation of the ether property of tension will result in an increase in field propagation speed and in so doing increase the effective range of locality.
  3. The special state that causes an increase of rigidity in the ether is due to a phenomenon known as a standing wave.

The Ether and the Effect of Standing Waves
A standing wave in a true solid creates a condition in which a spatial structure forms that causes an increase in spatial tension. This special state within the ether allows spatially separated particles to communicate superluminally. Since the ether material is stationary and a solid there is no separation between the particles. A standing wave in a true solid is different then the standing wave that is composed of a medium consisting of particles. Standing waves that exist in a particle medium cannot transfer information faster than the speed of light. It takes more time for ordinary non-standing wave structures to effect changes in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. In non-solid mediums the speed is much slower as the rate of energy and field deformation transfer is impeded by elasticity, compression and density of the medium.

Non-standing waves propagate through space (the ether) at a speed determined by the tension of the medium. The spatial tension function for non-standing wave propagation through the ether is determined by the medium’s tension and for ordinary space that value is the speed of light.

Standing waves that occur in true solids such as the ether can and do effect superluminal changes on other components of the waveform such as the primary wave nodes which in the case of the EPR experiment are entangled particles traveling in opposite directions. According SR Theory phase entangled particles form a structure called a standing wave with the primary nodes located at the ends of the wave structure. Phase entangled particles are nothing more than 1st Harmonic standing waves.

The standing wave structure for the ether medium conducts information throughout the ether medium superluminally. Under normal circumstances the ether deforms and propagates electromagnetic and gravitational waves at the maximum speed of light. There is a special case in which an ether structure can become highly rigid and in this special case, changes in the ether can be propagated at speeds greater than the speed of light. Achieving speeds beyond the speed of light is theoretically possible within the confines of Super Relativity. It is possible because SR Theory is an ether based theory. Theories that support an ether medium as the central cause of force propagation have within them the capability of modifying the rules and properties of physical reality.  This is so because all of physical reality’s actions and properties are determined by a single component, the Ether.

The Mathematical and Logical Proof
In the previous discussion above I mention that the cause for superluminal communication between phase correlated (twin particles) is a special 3 dimensional spatial variance called a standing wave. Super Relativity’s explanation for the EPR Phenomenon is based on the following facts and assumptions.

  1. The Ether mediates the superluminal communication
  2. The nature of matter is that of being a Wave–Particle Duality
  3. The modification of the tension of ether medium will modify the speed of a waveform moving along a medium.

The Types and Properties of Waves

Since particles exhibit wave like characteristics it is assumed that they interact with the ether medium as a wave. This should not be disputed as there are many experiments that have proven the wave like nature of particles. A wave is a disturbance which moves along a medium. There are 3 types of waves:

  1. Mechanical waves – These waves require a material medium. There are 3 subtypes

Transverse waves – Transverse waves cause the medium to move perpendicular to the direction of the wave. Occur in both solids and liquids. It requires a 3 dimensional medium.
Longitudinal Waves – Longitudinal waves cause the medium to move parallel to the direction of the wave.
Surface Waves – are both transverse waves and longitudinal waves mixed in one medium. Found in solids.

  1. Electromagnetic Waves – According to the current paradigm in physics which was given to us by Special Relativity electromagnetic waves supposedly do not require a medium to travel within. Light and radio waves are an example of electromagnetic waves. Important note: Super Relativity disagrees with this belief.  I believe that Electromagnetic waves should be classified as mechanical waves that are propagated through the ether which is a solid. Although the M&M experiment seemed to disprove the existence of the ether wind. It did not in my opinion disprove the ether itself. All that was proven is that you cannot detect absolute motion when using linear non accelerated motion as a frame of reference. In other words the ether does not cause a drag or an effect on non-accelerated frames of reference. Therefore motion compared to a stationary ether background cannot be detected. That’s what the M&M experiment proved.

  2. Matter Waves – Matter waves occur because electromagnetic and gravitational fields emanate from all particles.

SR Theory supports the notion that all matter and energy produce Transverse waves. Therefore we shall focus our attention towards the transverse wave. So according to SR Theory the EPR phenomenon is caused by a Standing Transverse Wave.
That is all well and good but how do we get to a point where superluminal communication occurs. The answer is quite simple actually. Since the primary assumption of this paper is that the mediating substance is the ether (or space itself) then modifying the ether medium should affect the wave speed. This theoretical system provides a complete mechanical structure that is capable of producing the EPR effect. This model is completely consistent with SR (Super Relativity Theory) and uses already pre-existing physics concepts and laws. All that is required is to assemble the model and extrapolate to achieve the completed mechanical model explanation.
The next task is to explain the concept of how a Transverse Standing Wave can affect space in such a way as to enable superluminal information transfer. 

The Speed of a Wave

The important concept to focus on is wave speed. The speed of a wave refers to how fast an object is moving and is usually expressed as the distance traveled per time of travel. 

 

 

The Variables that Affect Wave Speed
The big question now is what variables within the waveform or ether medium affect wave speed. I have made a list of the various attributes of the waveform and the medium as well as the particle state.

Attributes of the Waveform

  Frequency
Speed

Attributes of the particle State
  Polarization
  Spin

 

Properties of space (ether)

Properties                  SR Theory Predicts
Rigidity                      Extremely Rigid (Increases as entangled particles separate)
Viscosity                    zero viscosity
Continuous                 Constant, all pervasive
Dispersiveness               non-dispersive
State                         Solid

All the possible attributes that can be modified in the EPR experiment are as follows:
Particle Attributes
Frequency
Speed
Polarization
Spin
Spatial Property
Rigidity

While the top four particle attributes will have no effect on particle speed the bottom property, spatial rigidity remains as the only viable explanation for a possible change in particle speed. The modification of space itself is a founding principle of SR Theory. Modifying this spatial property is the key to achieving superluminal wave speed. Under normal circumstances the modification of speed to any material object is limited to the maximum velocity which is the speed of light. The other variable frequency or the wavelength has been proven to have no effect on increasing particle speed that I know of.  We can also exclude polarization or spin from affecting particle speed as well. The only variable left that can be used to affect a wave’s propagation speed is altering the tension of the medium. This has already been proven to be a way to increase or decrease wave propagation speed in the macroscopic world. It has been proven in the lab that increasing the tension of a rope will give a corresponding increase in wave speed. This experiment has been performed many times in classrooms and labs throughout the world. The rope in this case is the medium so the tighter the rope the faster the wave speed. Therefore it is now fairly easy to deduce what must be happening in the case of the EPR experiment. The only reasonable explanation for the EPR Phenomenon must be that the creation of entangled particles causes spatial tension to increase between the particles.  The special case of phase correlated expanding standing wave structures such as twin photons obviously must cause space, (the ether) to become ultra rigid between the particles which are the primary nodes of the standing wave. This rigid structure creates a pathway for superluminal communication to occur. This explanation is consistent with the physical model that is used to support the theory of Super Relativity. The basis for the explanation of all phenomena at the foundational level uses a mechanical explanation based on ether theory. From my perspective the EPR experiment provides evidence for the existence of the ether. This explanation is also consistent with John Bell’s Theorem.

The constraint, known as Bell's Inequality, allowed experimenters to disprove the idea that particles "knew" in advance how to behave under all circumstances. In other words it disproved “hidden local variables” as a possible explanation. Which meant that the perfect correlation found for all angles of spin measurement did imply that somehow one measurement influenced the outcome of the other one, even in cases where for this to happen, the influence had to travel faster than the speed of light. This agrees perfectly with what Super Relativity says.

Summary
The Super Relativity physical model for reality describes a method that Mother Nature can use to create the conditions necessary for superluminal communication and force transfer. Basically the structure that is formed when phase correlated particles are created causes space to become extremely rigid between the twin particles. This connection I called a EPR filament connection. Therefore locality remains in force even though the particles are separated by a large distance. In other words these particles remain connected. In Super Relativity all matter and energy are connected because they reside within and are composed of the ether substance. The ether substance is a continuous solid that fills all of space. Under normal circumstances energy transfer can not travel through space faster than the speed of light. The maximum rate of wave speed is determined by spatial tension. It makes sense that a high degree of physical connectivity creates the covariant particle behavior which we observe. The EPR phenomenon demonstrates SR Theory’s primary postulate which is that a high degree of physical connectivity occurs wherever phase correlated structures exist. These types of structures create a condition in which the separating particles have a complete and total affect on each other and are always connected.
Experiment Proposal Assumptions

The entire controversy of EPR boils down to whether there is a superluminal connection between entangled particles or there is not. Even Bell's Theorem has assumptions in it.
1. Logic is completely valid
2. There must be a reality that is separate from its observation.
3. Finally, no information can travel faster than light. (This is locality)
Based upon the possibility that the 3rd assumption listed above is incorrect and that there in fact is a real physical super-luminal connection that exists between entangled pairs we should establish an experiment to prove the existence of the EPR filament. The goal is to detect a new form of spacetime reality that occurs only when entangled pairs exist.

QM Explanation of EPR

Simply put by QM reasoning and mathematics of the wave function and by conservation of angular momentum, whatever the result for the particle we measure, the other particle must instantaneously be fixed in the complementary spin - without our measuring it. Also by the Copenhagen Interpretation there is no state attributable to either particle until a measurement is made, so neither particle has a value for polarization.

Ah, but as many people see it, including myself those particles could be a few light years apart therefore it should take a few years for some signal concerning the state of one particle to reach the other at light speed, which is the limiting velocity of space time. We have got quite a conundrum here. We seem to have some sort of instantaneous connection and that to me is what the entire controversy is all about. According to QM advocates and I am going to try and choose my words carefully here as I know there is a lot of frustration concerning the description of EPR. But according to what QM people believe, for the non-measured particle's state to instantly collapse you need non-locality what Einstein called (Spooky action at a distance). For this to happen you would seem to need faster-than-light communication. I know, I know there is no such thing as faster than light communication.

Anyway back to the problem. The problem as I see it is the Copenhagen Interpretation, which by the way is over 85 years old! It says that we have a pair of particles that cannot be treated as separate, their states are entangled in such a way that the sheer act of measurement or observation on one fixes the state of the other. The entire problem boils down to the following small phrase "fixes the state of the other". How does that physically work? We have an equation that describes this phenomenon perfectly but it may only be an approximation of reality and not in any way be an actual explanation of the physical cause. At this point we have no explanation other than Quantum Theory magic. In my opinion the Universe does not obey mathematical formulations. Nature obeys the laws of forces which impart action and affect upon real objects. In other words, events in reality happen because of causes and effects of objects in motion and interaction with each other. All things are affected by real physical forces. All objects do have position and momentum for every moment in time whether we observe them or not. The trick is to get the one
and only set of equations that actually describe the forces of nature. We are never going to get those equations using Quantum Theory. All QM equations will be good for is providing an approximation of how reality works through the imprecise method of statistics. Even now as I speak recent experiments have revealed that it may possible to determine both the path that an individual particle takes and still have the particle exhibit wavelike characteristics. http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=what-does-the-new-dou...Eventually the uncertainty principle will fall. Other experiments using single isolated atoms have indicated that the governing process of the very small may be due to deterministic chaos and not random events as QM says. All we are going to need is a little more time and effort and we will be able to undo Bohr’s interpretations of reality. 

The Experiment

So finally to prove the super-luminal connection described above by Super Relativity I suggest we do an experiment to determine if there is an actual physical connection between entangled particles. According to Super Relativity Theory space is an elastic solid. This elastic solid possesses a high tension. This tension determines how fast light (Electromagnetic radiation) can travel in this medium. Therefore according to Super Relativity in the case of entangled particles an entangled electromagnetic field filament may exist between the two particles as they recede from each other. As they separate the tension in this filament increases dramatically therefore allowing a region where electromagnetic force can be propagated at super-luminal speeds. The challenge is then design an experiment to detect the possible existence of the EPR filament. My idea for doing this is to perform the EPR experiment as normal except for one key difference. Do not attempt to break the entanglement until the particle passes by the filter device that will cut or modify the filament. If a real connection exists then by breaking the filament connection of the entanglement should correspondingly effect a change in the correlation numbers at the detector. So, simply put, we need to wait until photon “A” passes by the filter or device that is designed to break the entanglement. Then inject the filter that will hopefully break the entanglement. According to QM Theory there should be no effect. Why because we have not touched or modified or observed the particle. All we are doing is interfering with a connection in between the two particles. But, if there is a physical filament connection then interfering with the filament should still cause a break in the correlation. 

 

 

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principle_of_locality


 

 

 






   






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